Engineering diagnostic services can be used to determine the causes of structural failures. Modelers, structural engineers, contractors, surveyors, and MEP consultants are well versed in engineering diagnostic services. Constructability analysis at the preconstruction stage is carried out by well-experienced BIM modelers. The list of engineering diagnostic services offered by a typical construction company includes assessment of the visual condition of building structure, structural load testing, engineering analysis, bidding support, construction administration, and monitoring of building repairs. It focuses on corrective measures of building facilities like single building development, multi-building campus, mixed-use buildings, and stadiums.
- It has been pointed out that engineering diagnostic services enhance the efficacy and sustainability of structural engineering throughout the stages of the construction project lifecycle including designing, planning, facilities maintenance, and operations.
- Engineering diagnostics with BIM focuses on BIM integrated knowledge management for facility assets and sustainability.
- It features verifying structural elements with BIM-powered support of interactive diagnostics.
- Another focal area of engineering diagnostic service from BIM is reducing conflicts and changes during construction with 3D BIM.
- Combustion and engineering diagnostics are other key aspects of engineering diagnostic services.
- Engineering diagnostics empowers safe and secure buildings for government facilities, residential spaces as well as commercial spaces.
A construction company specializing in engineering diagnostic services offers precise design validation, 3D modeling, 4D scheduling, 5D cost estimation, and 6D facilities management.
Structural Load Testing
The objectives of structural load testing are determining the ability of a structure to carry additional loads, establishing the safety of structures, validating strengthening, gaining knowledge on the behavior of a structure, and supplementing analytical work models. Two protocols are available for load testing of concrete structures in the United States of America: monotonic and cyclic. The selection of a load test protocol is dependent on several factors like load test, site conditions, time constraints, budget, and familiarity with load test protocol.
- Monotonic load test protocol has been used for the structural evaluation of concrete structures for a very long time.
- It involves loading the structure in a monotonic manner by applying the load until reaching the test load magnitude.
- The structure gets evaluated based on the maximum recorded deflection and the amount of deflection recovery.
- According to experts from the construction industry, dead weights or hydraulic jacks can be used to achieve monotonic loading.
Cyclic load test protocol has been in use for the past fifteen years and it is an excellent alternative for in-situ load testing.
The cyclic load testing protocol refers to loading the structure cyclically by applying the load in increments. It includes different cycles of incremental loading and incremental unloading using hydraulic jacks. The response of the structure is being monitored during the load test and the structure is evaluated using parameters like deflection linearity and deflection permanency. The load test protocol does not require holding the test load for a period of 24 hours since the structure is loaded and unloaded at different load levels. It has been reported that in-situ load testing is helpful in achieving sound and functional structures. Structural load testing can be utilized to determine structural soundness, gauge damaged conditions, and verify the efficiency of repairs as well as retrofits. A team entrusted with the responsibility of structural load testing ensures that structural components and maintenance equipment meet requirements for capacity and design loads. Structural engineers employed in USA-based construction companies perform structural load tests across a wide spectrum of materials and structure types. The stellar features of structural load test offered by American construction companies include static load testing, fatigue load testing, pull down cyclic load testing, push down cyclic load testing, load testing of façade, 24-hour monotonic load testing, hydraulic ram testing, water loaded testing, and in-situ load testing of double tee beams.
- The load test on concrete is required to determine the serviceability of the structure and a load test is not made until the structure portion to load is at least 56 days old.
- The test can be performed only in such a stage when the owner of the structure, contractor, and all involved parties agree.
- A physical load test is found to be more suitable to clarify the doubts about shear strength and it can also be utilized to check deficiencies related to axial capacity.
- It is ideal to compare the results of the load test with the results of the analysis and load test is an effective method of the strength evaluation process for a particular project.
- Periodic re-evaluations are recommended for a structure with significant deterioration even if the structure passes a load test.
- Periodic re-evaluations are often conducted at the end of each specific period and another option for maintaining the structure in service is to limit the live load to a level.
- The time period between successive inspections is based on different factors like the nature of the problem, environmental efforts, nature of loading, and service history of the structure.
It is a well-known fact that engineering analysis is very helpful in making decisions and guiding the design process. Engineering analysis is the breaking down of an object, system, or problem into fundamental parts to understand its relationships to each other. It is an unquestionable fact that engineering analysis is an important part of the early stages of a project. Engineering analysis is the branch that deals with the determination of the behavior of structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, towers, offshore platforms, foundations, and stadiums. Construction engineers make use of computer software for the calculation of forces, bending moment, stress, strain, and deformation.
Engineering analysis is important for structural engineers to ensure that they completely understand the load paths and impacts of loads on their engineering design. It can be conducted during design, testing, or post-construction and it accounts for the materials used, the geometry of the structure, and applied loads. Engineering analysis looks at different structural elements and the forces they undergo and a civil engineer will look at the structural analysis results for beams, slabs, cables, and walls.
Construction bidding can be defined as the process of providing a potential customer with a proposal to build or manage a building structure. It is also the method in which subcontractors pitch services to general contractors and starting with accurate cost estimates and submitting the lowest bid of all the competing contractors is the golden rule of construction bidding. Examining construction plans and performing material quantity take-offs are the preliminary steps of construction bidding. The terms bid and estimate are used interchangeably in the construction sector and it is important to understand the difference between the two. An estimate can be defined as the calculation of the contractor’s internal costs including materials and labour whereas a bid is a final price charged to a customer.
The difference between the bid amount and expenses is the profit of the construction company. A construction bidding software ensures that the construction company is bidding the right amount. Estimates in construction bids should be as accurate as possible and the price is a consideration in construction bidding. The construction bidding process includes the activities of the bid solicitation, subcontracting, bid submission, bid selection, contract formation, and project delivery. The owner seeks bids and offers a material package with drawings, specifications, and other documents. This is known as making a Request for Proposal(RFP) or a Request to Tender(RTT).
General contractors accept bids from subcontractors and sub-contracting occurs after a general contractor wins a bid. Builders submit bids within a specific time period and the owner reviews bids and select the winner. The contract formation phase finalizes the terms and lays the legal groundwork for the construction project. Project delivery is the final step in construction bidding and procurement method, project delivery method, and contract model are the three decisions that shape construction projects. Each choice made by a construction company owner in bidding translates into different responsibilities, risks, and costs.
Construction administration, or construction observation, is the process the designer goes through to stay involved during the construction project. It includes regular meetings with the contractor and owner and construction administration services offered by an architect will help a client to navigate construction effectively. Construction administration is helpful in simplifying construction for the contractor and it leads to cost savings. The construction administration can be defined as the execution of a construction contract during the preconstruction and construction phases of a project. Construction administration mainly focuses on contract completion during the preconstruction and construction phases of a project.
Lead engineers, construction project managers, and construction contract administrators are the professionals involved in construction administration. The responsibilities of construction administration professionals include reviewing submittals, reviewing inspection reports, keeping track of materials, and keeping track of costs. A lead engineer is largely responsible for administering the signed contract in construction administration. He ensures that the project is moving towards the desired result and construction administration is often referred as construction contract administration in some situations. Reviewing submittal packages, approving change orders, building code enforcement, finding new supplies, and problem-solving are five elements of construction administration. Construction administration is very important since it ensures a smooth building process and the architect pays a visit to the construction area to see that everything progresses smoothly during the construction administration phase.